Types of Knowledge- Knowing That, How, and With

John Hattie, in his exploration of effective teaching and learning practices, emphasizes the importance of distinguishing between different types of knowledge. He categorizes knowledge into three primary types: “knowing that,” “knowing how,” and “knowing with.”

  1. Knowing That (Declarative Knowledge):
    • Description: This is knowledge of facts, concepts, and information. It’s about what you know and can recall.
    • Example: Knowing that the capital city of France is Paris, or knowing that water boils at 100°C at sea level.
  2. Knowing How (Procedural Knowledge):
    • Description: This is knowledge about how to do something, typically skills or procedures that can be applied.
    • Example: Knowing how to solve a quadratic equation, or knowing how to ride a bicycle.
  3. Knowing With (Conditional Knowledge):
    • Description: This involves knowing when and why to use certain procedures, strategies, or actions, and in what contexts. It’s about understanding the conditions under which certain knowledge is relevant or can be applied.
    • Example: Knowing when to use a particular problem-solving strategy in mathematics based on the type of problem presented, or a writer knowing which rhetorical strategy to use based on the intended audience.

To put it all together in a more extended example: In cooking, “knowing that” might involve recognizing that yeast is used to make dough rise. “Knowing how” would be understanding the steps to knead and proof the dough to ensure it rises correctly. “Knowing with” would be the ability to determine when it’s best to use yeast in a recipe based on the desired outcome, or adapting the amount of yeast used based on environmental factors like altitude.

Understanding these differences can help educators be more deliberate in their instruction, ensuring students not only understand facts (knowing that) but also can apply skills in appropriate contexts (knowing how and knowing with).

Now, let’s discuss how SLEEDU could potentially help students learn and master these types of knowledge:

  1. Declarative Knowledge:
    • Data-Driven Insights: SLEEDU’s analytics can highlight areas where students might be struggling with basic facts and concepts. This helps educators focus on these weak areas and ensures students gain a strong foundation.
    • Engaging Content Delivery: The platform’s blend of entertainment and education ensures that students remain engaged while absorbing factual information, making it more memorable.
  2. Procedural Knowledge:
    • Interactive Learning: Platforms like SLEEDU often offer interactive exercises or simulations. These tools allow students to practice and hone their skills in real-time, facilitating the acquisition of procedural knowledge.
    • Immediate Feedback: Receiving instant feedback helps students correct their mistakes on-the-spot, ensuring they understand the proper procedures and methodologies.
  3. Conditional Knowledge:
    • Contextual Engagement: SLEEDU’s emphasis on relevant and contextual engagement ensures students not only learn facts and processes but also understand their broader relevance and application.
    • Scenario-Based Learning: SLEEDU could potentially offer scenarios or case studies where students decide which facts or procedures are relevant, fostering their conditional knowledge.
    • Reflection and Analysis Tools: If SLEEDU offers tools for reflection and discussion, students can deliberate on when and why specific pieces of knowledge are applicable, deepening their understanding of conditional knowledge.

In essence, a platform like SLEEDU, with its rich features and emphasis on engagement, can holistically support students in mastering all three types of knowledge, ultimately leading to robust content mastery.

The Multi-Tiered Safe Pouch system primarily addresses classroom management and the challenge posed by smartphone distractions in the learning environment. But, by creating a more conducive atmosphere for learning, it indirectly supports the acquisition of different types of knowledge. Here’s how the system might aid students in mastering the three types of knowledge:

  1. Declarative Knowledge (“Knowing That”):
    • Distraction-Free Environment: By keeping smartphones secured, the Safe Pouch system ensures that students are present and attentive during lessons. This heightened attention can lead to better retention of factual information and concepts being taught.
    • Consistent Learning Environment: With reduced disruptions from phone notifications or the temptation to check messages, the classroom environment becomes more consistent. This consistency can help in the steady absorption of declarative knowledge over time.
  2. Procedural Knowledge (“Knowing How”):
    • Uninterrupted Skill Practice: In subjects where procedural knowledge is essential, like mathematics or science, uninterrupted practice is vital. Without the distraction of smartphones, students can focus on practicing and honing specific skills without breaks in concentration, which might lead to errors or misconceptions.
    • Engagement in Classroom Activities: Activities, experiments, or role-plays often help students understand procedures and processes. By being fully engaged in these, without the pull of smartphones, students can get a clearer grasp of “how” certain processes work.
  3. Conditional Knowledge (“Knowing When and Why”):
    • Active Participation in Discussions: Discussions and debates in the classroom often revolve around understanding the contextual application of knowledge. Without phones as distractions, students are more likely to participate, helping them understand when and why certain facts or processes are relevant.
    • Enhanced Peer Interactions: With the absence of smartphones, students might engage more with their peers, discussing lessons, and sharing insights. This can help in refining their conditional knowledge as they discuss and determine the best situations to apply what they’ve learned.
    • Tailored Interventions: The tiered approach of the Safe Pouch system ensures that students with behavioral challenges receive suitable interventions. These interventions can help them understand the importance of context in classroom behavior, which in itself is a lesson in conditional knowledge.

While the primary goal of the Multi-Tiered Safe Pouch system is to create a distraction-free learning environment, the ripple effect of this focused atmosphere extends to the various facets of knowledge acquisition, making it an instrumental tool in supporting content mastery.

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