One Dough Recipe for Many Breads

A versatile dough recipe that can be used for various types of breads is a simple, straightforward approach to baking. This basic dough can be adapted to create a variety of breads such as dinner rolls, loaves, pizza bases, and even sweet breads. Here’s a foundational recipe:

Basic Dough Recipe


  • 500 grams (about 4 cups) All-purpose flour
  • 10 grams (2 teaspoons) Salt
  • 25 grams (2 tablespoons) Sugar
  • 7 grams (1 packet) Instant yeast
  • 300 ml (about 1¼ cups) Warm water (around 110°F or 45°C)
  • 50 ml (about 3½ tablespoons) Olive oil or vegetable oil
  • Optional: Additional seasonings or ingredients depending on the type of bread (e.g., herbs for savory bread, cinnamon and raisins for sweet bread)


  1. Mix Dry Ingredients: In a large mixing bowl, combine the flour, salt, sugar, and instant yeast. Mix these dry ingredients thoroughly.
  2. Add Wet Ingredients: Make a well in the center of the dry ingredients. Pour the warm water and oil into the well.
  3. Knead the Dough: Gradually mix the dry ingredients into the wet ingredients until a dough begins to form. Transfer the dough to a floured surface and knead for about 10 minutes, until the dough is smooth and elastic.
  4. First Rise: Place the kneaded dough in a greased bowl, cover with a clean kitchen towel or plastic wrap, and let it rise in a warm place for about 1 to 1.5 hours, or until it doubles in size.
  5. Shape the Bread: After the first rise, punch down the dough to release any air bubbles. Then, shape the dough according to the type of bread you want to make. For example, form rolls or a loaf, or flatten it for pizza.
  6. Second Rise (Optional): For softer breads like dinner rolls, let the shaped dough have a second rise for about 30 minutes. For a crisper crust, like in pizza, you can skip the second rise.
  7. Bake: Preheat your oven according to the type of bread you’re making. For loaves and rolls, bake at 350°F (175°C) for about 20-25 minutes. For pizza, a hotter oven at 475°F (245°C) for 10-15 minutes is ideal. The bread is done when it’s golden brown and sounds hollow when tapped.
  8. Cool: Allow the bread to cool on a wire rack before slicing to let the structure set.


  • Dinner Rolls: Add a bit of butter to the dough for richer flavor. Shape into small balls and allow a second rise before baking.
  • Pizza Base: Roll out the dough to your desired thickness and add toppings. No need for a second rise.
  • Sweet Bread: Add ingredients like cinnamon, vanilla extract, and raisins or other dried fruits to the dough. Consider a sweeter glaze or topping after baking.

This basic dough recipe is highly adaptable and serves as a great foundation for experimenting with different types of bread. The key to successful bread-making is the precision of ingredients and the understanding of the fermentation process, which is crucial for the dough to rise properly.

Scientific Explanation of the Making Process

  1. Mixing Dry Ingredients:
    • Flour: The primary source of gluten, a protein that gives bread its structure. When hydrated and kneaded, gluten strands align and form a network that traps gases.
    • Salt: Strengthens the gluten network and controls yeast activity, preventing over-fermentation.
    • Sugar: Provides food for the yeast, aiding in fermentation. It also helps in browning and flavor development through caramelization and the Maillard reaction during baking.
    • Yeast: A living organism that ferments sugars in the dough, producing carbon dioxide (CO₂) and alcohol. This CO₂ is what causes the dough to rise.
  2. Adding Wet Ingredients:
    • Warm Water: Activates the yeast (too hot can kill it, too cold can retard its activity). Hydrates the flour, allowing gluten formation.
    • Oil: Fats tenderize the dough by coating some of the gluten strands, preventing them from forming a too-strong network. This results in a softer texture.
  3. Kneading the Dough:
    • Kneading develops the gluten network, aligning and stretching the protein strands. This network is essential for trapping the CO₂ produced by yeast, contributing to the bread’s rise and chewy texture.
  4. First Rise (Fermentation):
    • Yeast continues to ferment sugars, producing more CO₂ and alcohol. This causes the dough to rise and develop flavor. The long, slow rise allows for both the development of organic acids (contributing to flavor) and the formation of air pockets (for texture).
  5. Shaping the Bread:
    • When shaping, you’re essentially creating tension on the outer surface of the bread, which helps maintain its shape during the final rise and baking.
  6. Second Rise (Proofing) (Optional):
    • This allows the yeast to continue fermenting, producing more CO₂ and expanding the air pockets. The result is a lighter, airier bread.
  7. Baking:
    • Oven Spring: The initial heat of the oven causes rapid yeast activity and expansion of gases, leading to the ‘oven spring,’ where bread quickly rises.
    • Starch Gelatinization: At around 140°F (60°C), starches in the flour absorb water, swell, and gelatinize, forming the bread’s structure.
    • Protein Coagulation: At around 160°F (71°C), proteins (gluten) coagulate and solidify, giving the bread its firm structure.
    • Maillard Reaction and Caramelization: Above 300°F (149°C), these reactions occur, contributing to the browning and flavor development of the bread’s crust.
  8. Cooling:
    • Cooling allows the bread’s structure to set and stabilizes the crumb. Cutting into the bread too early can cause it to collapse or be gummy.

Variations and Their Scientific Impacts

  • Dinner Rolls: Adding butter (fat) tenderizes the bread by interrupting gluten formation, leading to a softer texture.
  • Pizza Base: Skipping the second rise and using a hotter oven creates a crisper crust due to rapid water evaporation and Maillard browning.
  • Sweet Bread: Adding ingredients like cinnamon, vanilla, and dried fruits adds flavors but also affects moisture content and yeast activity, often requiring adjustment in rising times.

This scientific approach to bread-making reveals the intricate balance of chemistry and physics involved in creating different textures and flavors in bread. By understanding these principles, bakers can manipulate ingredients and processes to achieve desired outcomes in their baking.

John Nguyen
John Nguyen
Articles: 103

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