Best Brownie Recipe with Scientific Explanation


  • 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons (160 g) all-purpose flour
  • 3/4 teaspoon salt
  • 1/2 teaspoon baking powder
  • 4 large eggs, at room temperature
  • 1 cup (200 g) granulated sugar (reduced from 1 1/2 cups to decrease sweetness)
  • 1/4 cup (50 g) packed brown sugar (reduced from 1/2 cup for less sweetness but maintaining moisture)
  • 1/2 cup (112 g) canola oil
  • 2 teaspoons pure vanilla extract
  • 8 tablespoons (1 stick or 113 g) unsalted butter
  • 8 oz (226 g) bittersweet chocolate, chopped
  • 1/4 cup (25 g) Dutch-process cocoa powder


  1. Oven Preparation: Preheat the oven to 350°F (180°C). Grease and line a 9×13 inch baking pan with parchment paper. Centering the oven rack ensures even baking and prevents the bottom from cooking too quickly.
  2. Dry Ingredients: Whisk together the flour, salt, and baking powder in a small bowl. This step ensures that the baking powder is evenly distributed, which is critical for an even rise.
  3. Wet Ingredients: In a large bowl, whisk the eggs with the reduced amounts of granulated and brown sugars, canola oil, and vanilla. Reducing the sugar content lowers the sweetness but still provides enough structure for the brownies. Eggs add moisture and bind the ingredients together, while oil keeps the brownies moist and tender.
  4. Melt Chocolate and Butter: Gently melt the butter and chocolate over low heat, stirring to prevent the chocolate from burning. Once smooth, remove from heat and whisk in the cocoa powder. This process creates a rich, chocolatey base. Melting chocolate with butter and incorporating cocoa powder enhances the brownies’ flavor depth without relying solely on sugar for taste.
  5. Combine Mixtures: Whisk the chocolate mixture into the egg-sugar mixture until smooth, then fold in the flour mixture until just combined. It’s important to mix gently to avoid overmixing, which can lead to tough brownies.
  6. Bake: Pour the batter into the prepared pan and bake as directed. The visual cues for doneness ensure that the brownies are perfectly baked, with a moist crumb but set structure.
  7. Cool and Serve: Let the brownies cool in the pan before lifting out and cutting into bars. Cooling in the pan allows the brownies to set properly and develop their texture.

Scientific Concepts:

  • Sugar Reduction Impact: Sugar plays multiple roles in brownies, not just adding sweetness but also affecting texture and moisture. Reducing sugar can make brownies less tender and moist, but the presence of eggs, butter, and oil compensates by adding fat and moisture, maintaining a desirable texture.
  • Role of Fats: Fats like butter and oil are key for the tender, moist texture of brownies. They inhibit gluten formation by coating flour proteins, which prevents the brownies from becoming tough.
  • Egg’s Function: Eggs contribute to the structure and leavening. Beating eggs thoroughly before adding to the mixture incorporates air, which expands during baking to help leaven the brownies. The proteins in eggs set with heat, providing structure.
  • Cocoa and Chocolate: Both contribute rich chocolate flavor. Cocoa powder, being unsweetened, intensifies the chocolatey taste without adding extra sugar, while melted chocolate contributes to the fudgy texture.
  • Baking Powder: As a leavening agent, it releases carbon dioxide when heated, contributing to the rise and creating a lighter texture in the brownies.

This modified brownie recipe with reduced sweetness explains how adjustments in sugar levels impact not only the taste but also the texture of the brownies. By understanding the roles of each ingredient, especially the reduced sugar, you can create a less sweet version that still offers a rich, satisfying chocolate experience and a moist, tender crumb.

John Nguyen
John Nguyen
Articles: 103

Leave a Reply


Discover more from WIN ELEMENTS

Subscribe now to keep reading and get access to the full archive.

Continue reading