Authentic Thai Hot and Sour Soup Recipe with Scientific Explanation

Authentic Thai Hot and Sour Soup Recipe

Servings: 6
Preparation Time: 10 minutes
Cooking Time: 15 minutes


  • 4 oz. fresh mushrooms, thinly sliced
  • 2 chicken breast halves, boneless and skinless, shredded
  • 3 cups of chicken stock
  • 3 stalks lemongrass, chopped
  • 2 kaffir lime leaves
  • 1 tsp. of chopped green chili pepper
  • 1 tbsp. of tom yum paste
  • 1 tbsp. of lime juice
  • 1 tbsp. of fish sauce
  • 1 sprig fresh basil, chopped
  • 1 bunch of fresh cilantro, chopped
  • 1/2 garlic clove, finely chopped


  1. Start with Chicken Stock: In a large pot, bring the chicken stock to a rolling boil. Chicken stock serves as the soup’s base, providing depth and richness. The gelatin extracted from bones during the making of the stock contributes to a slightly viscous mouthfeel, enhancing the soup’s body.
  2. Incorporate Tom Yum Paste and Garlic: Add the tom yum paste and garlic to the boiling stock and cook for 2 minutes. Tom yum paste, a blend of lemongrass, galangal, lime leaves, fish sauce, and chili, delivers a complex flavor profile foundational to the soup’s character. Garlic, with its sulfurous compounds, offers antimicrobial benefits and a robust flavor that mellows upon cooking, becoming sweet and less pungent.
  3. Add Aromatics: Introduce lime leaves and lemongrass into the pot. Kaffir lime leaves impart a distinct citrusy aroma that cannot be easily substituted, while lemongrass provides a lemony scent and a hint of ginger, contributing to the soup’s refreshing quality. Both are rich in essential oils, which are responsible for their strong fragrances and flavors.
  4. Cook the Chicken: Add shredded chicken breast to the pot and cook until no longer pink, about 5 minutes. Shredding the chicken increases its surface area, allowing it to cook quickly and absorb flavors from the broth. Cooking it until the juices run clear ensures that it’s safely cooked through without becoming dry or tough.
  5. Mix in Remaining Ingredients: Stir in mushrooms, fish sauce, lime juice, and green chilies. Mushrooms add an earthy flavor and a meaty texture. Fish sauce provides umami, a savory taste that deepens the soup’s flavor complexity. Lime juice introduces acidity, balancing the soup’s richness and enhancing its freshness. Green chilies offer capsaicin, which adds spiciness and can stimulate metabolism.
  6. Finish and Serve: After combining all ingredients, remove the soup from heat. Garnish with cilantro and basil before serving. Cilantro and basil not only add freshness but also contribute additional layers of flavor—cilantro with its lively citrus undertone and basil with its sweet, peppery essence.

Scientific Concepts:

  • Gelatin in Stock: Gelatin, derived from collagen in bones and connective tissue, dissolves in hot water, giving the broth a rich mouthfeel. It’s a protein that forms a mesh-like structure, trapping water molecules and thickening the liquid.
  • Maillard Reaction in Tom Yum Paste: When cooking the tom yum paste, the Maillard reaction may occur, especially if there are any sugars or proteins present from the paste’s ingredients. This reaction contributes to the development of browned, complex flavors.
  • Capsaicin’s Effects: Capsaicin in green chilies triggers a sensation of spiciness by activating heat receptors in the mouth, which can increase saliva production, enhancing the perception of flavors.
  • Acidic Balance: Lime juice lowers the pH of the soup, adding brightness that cuts through the richness of the stock and coconut milk. Acidity can also slightly denature proteins in the chicken, tenderizing it and making it more succulent.
  • Aromatic Compounds: Essential oils in lemongrass and kaffir lime leaves are volatile, meaning they readily evaporate at room temperature, releasing their distinctive aromas. Heating these aromatics in the soup helps disperse their flavors more effectively.

This detailed recipe for Thai Hot and Sour Soup explores the culinary techniques and scientific principles that contribute to its unique taste and nutritional benefits. Understanding these concepts enhances both the cooking experience and the enjoyment of this flavorful, aromatic dish.

John Nguyen
John Nguyen
Articles: 103

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